The Ukraine was one of the nations that had been absorbed into the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. When the USSR collapsed in 1991, Ukraine became independent. The blue-and-yellow flag of earlier times, including a short-lived republic in 1918, was resurrected.
People explain the colors by saying that the blue represents the sky over the yellow wheat field, or that the yellow represents golden roofs of churches and the blue the river Dniper. More simply, some people say that blue and yellow represent water and fire.
Other nations with blue-and-yellow flags include Sweden (a yellow Scandinavian cross on a blue field), Palua (a golden full moon on blue sky), and Kazakhstan (a golden sun and eagle on blue sky, plus some more golden decorations on the hoist side).
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Tomorrow Ukraine will celebrate its independence! See last year's post for more about this fascinating country.